Infographic: Monsanto Vs. Monarchs
May 07, 2014

View the full-size Infographic Here! (JPG)
Download the PDF Here

Monarch Infographic Citations:

Monarch butterfly population is by far lowest ever recorded:
WWF Press Release, January 29th 2014: https://worldwildlife.org/stories/monarch-population-hits-lowest-point-in-more-than-20-years

Glyphosate is decimating milkweeds monarchs depend on:
Pleasants JM, Oberhauser KS (2013) “Milkweed loss in agricultural fields because of herbicide use: effect on the monarch butterfly population.” Insect Conservation and Diversity 6:135–144. doi: 10.1111/j.1752-4598.2012.00196.x Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1752-4598.2012.00196.x/abstract

Increase in glyphosate use:
USGS (undated).  “Estimated agricultural use for glyphosate,” Pesticide National Synthesis Project, US Geological Survey, see bar graph “Use by Year and Crop.” http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa/pnsp/usage/maps/show_map.php?year=2009&map=GLYPHOSATE&hilo=L

Monsanto net sales:
Monsanto Company, “2013 Form 10-K.” Available at: http://www.monsanto.com/investors/documents/annual%20report/2013/2013-monsanto-10-k.pdf

99% of milkweed destroyed in Iowa corn and soybean fields:
Pleasants (in press), Monarch Butterflies and Agriculture, Ch. 14 in: "Monarchs in a Changing World: Biology and Conservation of an Iconic Insect" Cornell Univ. Press.

64% decline in milkweed, 88% decline in monarchs:
Pleasants (in press), Monarch Butterflies and Agriculture, Ch. 14 in: "Monarchs in a Changing World: Biology and Conservation of an Iconic Insect" Cornell Univ. Press.

Overwintering decline 90%:
Brower LP, Taylor OR, Williams EH (2012) “Response to Davis: choosing relevant evidence to assess monarch population trends.”  Insect Conservation and Diversity 5:327–329. doi: 10.1111/j.1752-4598.2011.00176.x

Brower LP, Taylor OR, Williams EH, et al. (2011) “Decline of monarch butterflies overwintering in Mexico: is the migratory phenomenon at risk?” Insect Conservation and Diversity 5:95–100. doi: 10.1111/j.1752-4598.2011.00142.x

WWF Press Release, January 29th 2014: https://worldwildlife.org/stories/monarch-population-hits-lowest-point-in-more-than-20-years